The process of facial aging is caused by two factors: aging of the skin and the formation of folds and wrinkles as a result of gravitational forces and repetitive facial muscle contractions. Facial wrinkle operations are mainly focused on correcting the results of gravitational aging, not skin aging itself. Skin aging is caused by:
- thinning of the dermal-epidermal connections,
- reduction of the number of melanocytes,
- reduction of the amount of ground substance of skin (including hyaluronic acid),
- reduction of the amount of elastic fibers,
- reduction of the amount of collagen.
The folds and wrinkles of the aging face can be divided into: hypotension, dynamic, gravity.
Orthostatic furrows are those that are already present at birth or shortly after, these are located on the posterior lateral and anterior-lateral surface of the neck are transverse, semicircular course.
The grooves are the result of a dynamic continuous operation involving the facial muscles that pull the skin.
Gravitational furrows are formed by the action of gravity on the flabby skin, formed slowly and at different times, depending on the inclination between individuals.
Nose - lip folds are the result of a dynamic and gravitational effects. Formed on the border of the lips skin, which is firmly attached to deeper layers of muscle-fascial and cheek skin, which is loosely attached to the deeper layers.
The age at which aging skin characteristics are revealed:
- At the age of 30 upper eyelid skin wrinkles become visible, crow's feet (laughter wrinkles) from the eye socket
- At the age of 40 previous features are deepening, and additional visible wrinkles around the forehead are appearing;
- At the age of 50 clear wrinkles of the neck and jaw line appear making the skin saggy, and the tip of the nose drops;
- At the age of 60 facial skin and subcutaneous tissue in the temporal and cheek area becomes considerably thinner.